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By modeling is meant, in a general sense, the craft activity consisting in the creation of prototypes, using various manuals, which will have the function of acting as a "model" for an industrial production. Typically such models have been used to obtain a mold. The figure of the model craftsman is disappearing, replaced by the machines to which a numerical model from a CAD system can be provided.
Modeling, in a more common sense, is also a hobby consisting of building and eventually directing (dynamic modeling) miniature reproductions of machines, people or buildings. Originally it comes from the custom of certain craftsmen of centuries past, especially of furniture, to construct small scale examples of their products, so that they can be shown to their clients without having to actually build them before receiving the order.
Modeling as a hobby can be divided into:
Dynamic: Scale models that move and direct to remote control like airplanes and vehicles. Here the fans try to maneuver the most skillful model and achieve to develop the maximum control of the device.
Static: Scale models with great detail whose purpose is to appreciate them without movement. For amateurs or professionals of static modeling, each model represents a "piece of museum", thus creating their own private collections that may have different themes: historical Belicismo, civil engineering, science fiction, etc. Here fans are looking to scale the most realistic way possible of the original model. For the latter, it is wrong to consider static scale models as toys
The main branches of modeling as a hobby and the most common models are:
Truckmodelism: trucks, heavy machinery and dioramas suitable according to the scale, this is controlled remotely.
Rail modeling: Trains with motion over realistically detailed scenarios
Aeromodelling: Airplanes and other artifacts capable of flying by means of a remotely controlled engine
Automotive: Vehicles and other ground motion devices by means of a remotely controlled motor
Marine modeling: Boats and other devices with navigation capability over water with remotely controlled motor
Amateur rocket science: Rockets with take-off ability
Static modeling o Static modeling:
Military and civil aviation such as propeller airplanes, jets, helicopters and other devices
Military vehicles, tanks and various weapons
Naval and civilian models such as sailboats, aircraft carriers, destroyers, patrols, merchant ships and submarines
Civil and racing cars
Science fiction like ships and space stations
Current and extinct animals
Civil and military buildings and constructions
Fantastic environments and science fiction
The collecting of this type of miniatures is known by the name of miniaturism. Modeling uses different scales that are preferred depending on each amateur, for example in static military aviation the most common scales are 1:48 and 1:72 and in military vehicles is 1:35
For example, a model of an airplane, depending on the scale, can be only aerodynamic and plan, so it is functional in the aerodynamic aspect. The same aircraft model, on a different scale, could be only at the level of corporate design and image; For example, Airbus can present Lufthansa with a model that integrates perfectly into its corporate image; A second model that highlights the aerodynamics and a third model that highlights the timeliness of the placement of the engines and how they can continue to yield 100% at unsuspected heights thanks to the enriched oxygen tanks that provide the differential that the atmosphere does not Can by height limits; A fourth real-scale model that tests the pressurization of different areas, and perhaps the testing of stratospheric flight in a room that mimics atmospheric pressure and density at this point. The scale of each model is given by the need to show the objective to be highlighted. Thus, the aerodynamic model can be of a much smaller scale and of less specialized materials, than the scale of the model that tries to highlight the performance of the engines.
Layout of systems
It is understood as system layout to the practical representation of a dynamics calculated in theory, on a lesser conceptual scale than it will be submitted once in production.
The unit in which the system is measured is the 'data process', and the unit of measurement used will be in accordance with the format of the data. The data process results in a scale, which will approximate the real, as long as the processes observe a tendency to take into account the greater number of cooperating systems in the medium, whether natural or artificial.
The model concept will no longer be applicable at the moment when the process capacity is real in all its dimensions and, consequently, the production of work is compatible with the production of the rest of the already functional systems.
The automation of information makes possible the design of virtual systems, being that these systems need a time in a laboratory environment and tests.
It is the physical and scale reproduction, in three dimensions, usually, in small size, of something real or fictitious. There may also be large size models of some small and even microscopic objects represented in some kind of model.
Other definitions of model, with variants in the presentation system, are: dioramas, remote controlled or radio controlled vehicles, such as cars, trains and boats, etc.
The maquetismo can be static (static model) or dynamic model or of movement (telecontrolados models).
The model can not only be "to scale", but also represents the simulation of anything in another material (for example, the model of a cell phone made in cardboard), without the finished or the actual appearance.
Commonly used scales
The scale is the final size of the model compared to the original, and a model is said to be reduced or amplified by an X number of times its actual size. For example, 1: 100 (1 is a 100), 1:50 (1 is a 50) imply that a metric unit in the scale equals 100 or 50 units, respectively, in the real object. The scale chosen depends on different aspects, including the functional aspect (to which it is directed, for which it will be used).
Common Business Scales
For scale models and military vehicles it is usual to find scales 1/16; 1/35; 1/48 and finally 1/72.
For models of railway modeling the most common scale is 1/87, but also scales such as 1/160, 1/43 and 1/220 among others are used.
For modeling aviation (not to be confused with aircraft modeling or radio control of airplanes) the 1/32, 1/48 and 1/72 scale is usual.
For naval modeling, scales vary commercially from 1/700; 1/350; 1/100; 1/84 to 1/72.
For automotive modeling (cars, trucks, motorcycles ...) we can find scales 1/18, 1/24, 1/43, 1/64 and 1/72.
Materials and tools of the maquetista
The maquetista, unlike the modeler, acquires in the trade a kit of armado and before its execution is provided of photographs, history, planes and variants of colors and schemes.
Later, and already defined the version to be built, the assembly begins, using glues, paints, airbrushes, fillers, pigments, pliers, pliers, plasticard, wires, brass to give the greatest sense of realism to the model.
The kit materials can range from plastic, resin to wood or metal or a combination of these elements.
The essence of the maquette is to provide a visual sensation of realism at the scale of the model or model built.
The modeler will also try to reproduce the weathering, simulating the passage of time as would happen to a real-size model, using very diluted pigment filters in solvents with rapid evaporation.
In general, these steps are followed to achieve a static scale model:
Arming and gluing (the base models are acquired from different brands and manufacturers).
Painting and application of signs, marks, signs (some models have decals for this effect).
Finish. In this step the final effects are given to the model so that it looks as realistic as possible, some modelers seek to give the effect of "weathering" or weathering, which represents the wear and tear that the real artifacts presented during the use.
Static models can be added "handmade" parts to increase, improve or correct their details; This technique of adding manually manufactured parts is known as "scratch".
If you want to reproduce the model in its natural environment, then you talk about Diorama.
Maybe the model is very important to explain works of cities, machines and many things.
Profile of a maquetista
The modeler, as well as the modeler, must have the following characteristics:
Have fine motor skills.
Take the time required for the realization.
Possess ability to discriminate nuances of the same color.
Be thorough and neat in its execution.
Be orderly and methodical.
Know at least some basic techniques of assembly and painting.
Possess a minimum of space, accessories and implements.
Suitable lighting, ideally light-day or similar light sources.
Possess certain artistic skills in the handling of paints and pigments.
Give as much realism as possible to your model.
Types of models
School models: schools are assigned to primary, secondary and high school students for teaching purposes. The purpose of the students is to understand the parts that make up the object of study.
Aeromodelismo: whose objective is to design, build and fly planes to scale, as well as replicate as exact as possible of other existing or exclusively designed.
Railway modeling: it reproduces landscapes and places related to the railroad, as well as all kinds of vehicles that circulate on rails.
Naval modeling: reproduces all kinds of vehicles that circulate on water.
Automodelismo: reproduces all kinds of vehicles that circulate on the ground (earth or asphalt).
Science fiction modeling: it reproduces all kinds of models related to the genre of science fiction. Example: Star Wars models, Star Trek, etc.
Military model: reproduces characters, aircraft, vehicles and scenes (dioramas) related to any military activity of any era.
Musical model: is a non-professional musical production focused on the promotion or rehearsal of non-professional musical groups.
Architectural model: reproduces to scale buildings or projects. You can differentiate three different types of models: Conceptual model, work model or execution model.
Conceptual model: It is used to express an idea, a thought, an intention. They are usually quick mockups because they are models that seek to externalize creative impulses at the beginning of a project. They are not definitive. Several versions of this one must be realized and to the being conceptual models are not realized constructive details nor structural elements. Working model: Once the concept model is solved and the project is designed, the working model is used. This is more elaborate since here can be seen next to the concept the already functional aspects of the architectural project as the spaces, scales, circulations, structural elements, etc. These models are usually made of two or more materials as more elements are represented, such as the context where the project is inserted and / or details of the internal spaces. Execution model: This model is the definitive result of a project and is usually the most detailed that is this model that will be displayed to the client.
Model of objects: representation of any object, volume or three-dimensional shape. For example, a chair, a telephone, a horse, a bed, a computer, a decorative accessory, etc.
Models of systems: as its name implies, are the representation of any system, real or fictitious. For example: model of the solar system, of the digestive system, of a rural irrigation system, etc., each of them always using the creativity and innovation of the creator and his ideas to express.
Miniature figures are scale representations of the human figure. They are usually divided into historical figures, fantasy figures and famous characters. Painting miniatures is a hobby that has reached a very high level at present in many of its facets, each with its particularities, but all characterized by the stimulation of ideas and the contribution of different techniques of painting. Today, modellers have a seemingly inexhaustible amount of accessories and reference material for the realization of their figures.
Modeling the figure
The sculptor is the one who starts with the figure. Its activity is to create the miniature from scratch. The sources of inspiration of modelers are usually books of history, films, novels, films, comics, etc.
The most common sizes of figures in the world of miniatures are: 54mm., 70mm., 75mm. 90mm, 120mm, busts, etc.
The sculptor begins with a wire, usually copper, with which builds what would be the skeleton of the miniature. It is then when it begins to work with modeling putty, of which there are different types, like A + B, MagicSculpt or Milliput among others. All are two-component, cufflinks, which begin to stiffen as they are joined together. Using the different tools, the sculptor begins by making the body of the figure on the skeleton of wire with putty. Once dry, start making the clothes and the different accessories that complement it.
The sculptor then has two options, if the figure is only an original will then go to the painting of the same, but if it is a commercial figure, you must separate the different parts of the figure (depending on how it is) so that it can be Used as master to create the different copies. Commercial figures are usually made of lead or resin.
Painting of the figure
Before starting to paint, a number of guidelines should be followed.
First, since the figure is separated by pieces, only those pieces that do not make painting difficult must be joined. It is also preferable to glue the figure to a temporary base so that when painting do not touch the thumbnail with your fingers.
After this, it happens to eliminate the mold lines, or as the hobbyists call it "the burr", which is nothing more than the surplus material left in the figure when making copies from the master . To remove it is usually used a cutter, a file or very fine sandpaper.
You should then polish the figure to remove all kinds of imperfections.
Finally, by using a brush, the figure is given a layer of primer. This is a smooth coat of paint of a single color so that the rest of the colors will grip the figure better. The primer coat is usually white or black, or gray. The most experts usually use the different types of primer to make different effects on the figure.
That is when you begin to paint the figure. In painting with acrylics, although the colors are totally different from each other, they are usually governed by the same rule, which is not strict and can be broken according to the person who paints the miniature. Normally it usually starts giving a base color in the area to be painted. Once this is done, it usually happens to give a light tone using a lighter color, reducing the painted area. It will continue to give light, more and more intense at the same time that the space is smaller that the painting occupies until the painter considers necessary. After this you will go to the painting of the shadows. Starting from the base color, a darker color will be chosen to give the shadows. Like the lights, shadows will continue to be applied until the painter deems it necessary.
Once the figure is finished, it is necessary to look for a base on which the ground will be placed.
The terrain of the figure
Painting the terrain of the figure is another way of enjoying the hobby. The terrain must conform to the characteristics of the figure. There are commercial land that can be bought, but it is much more enriching to create the land from 0.
With the land is sought to locate the figure at a certain time and place, this can be real or fantastic. We look for an appropriate setting with the different materials available to the painter.
A diorama is a type of model that shows human figures, vehicles, animals or even imaginary beings as the focal point of their composition, presented within an environment and for the purpose of representing a scene.1
Sometimes it is placed in front of a background painted in a way that simulates a real environment, and can be completed with lighting effects. Images of nature, cities, historical events, battles, etc. can be represented. Whether for educational or entertainment purposes.
The term was coined by Louis Daguerre in 1822 for a type of rotating exhibitor.2 It was popularized in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by Frank Chapman, associate curator of the American Museum of Natural History.3
In some cases the third dimension - the depth or thickness - is very small compared to the other two, since its composition is destined to the observation from a fixed point of view. It is to this type of presentation to which some authors reserve exclusively the term diorama.
There are three main types:
The open dioramas, which are prepared to be observed from different points of view.
The box dioramas, which as the name implies, are mounted inside a box of variable dimensions and usually have lateral surfaces and behind where a background is painted that serves as an environment for the figures that are represented.
Book dioramas, which are mounted flat as if they were the pages of a book, but when opened, the figures mounted protrude from the bottom. Some Christmas cards and other motifs are mounted with this system, so that when opened they are projected out of the plane the figures that are prepared for it.
Dioramas can be an interesting teaching medium, especially for the first grades of school education and also for pre-school and secondary education.
Parts of the diorama
By the similarity that they present with a theatrical scene, but of smaller dimensions, its parts have names equal to those of a theater.
The fund or forum
It is the drawing that limits the field of action of the scene being represented. It can be formed by different planes that give an idea of depth or drawn in perspective, thus obtaining the same effect. The sides or frames. They are small drawings that have to cover different spaces of the scene, that can be vegetation, rocks, buildings, furniture, etc. These elements help to give depth to the diorama, which is one of its main attractions.
It constitutes the main action or motif of the diorama and may consist of different figures. The main ones that constitute the axis of the subject and can be one or several. The secondary ones usually complete the scene; Animals, people, objects, furniture and others. Dioramas can be static or dynamic. In the former, the figures are fixed, while in the latter a certain movement can be achieved by means of yarns attached thereto. They can also be accompanied by effects of lights, smoke, sound and other means that make more real the representation of what has been shown in them.
The figures can be drawn expressly for the diorama or cut out from suitable sheets. It is always important to maintain relationships of size, especially when it comes to small pupils. Generally the figures are drawn or pasted on cardboard or cardboard that is then trimmed and to which a "foot" is added by the back to be able to support them.
Dioramas are excellent teaching aids, especially since they can be elaborated by the students themselves in the upper grades of primary and secondary education, with scenes of historical moments, biological processes, geographical maps and many more. It is a fun way to build knowledge and are relatively easy to work out.
The modern techniques of computerized treatment of the digital image, allow today the television to present the images as if they were dioramas. It is very common to see advertisements for programs, political propaganda, commercial, signs, etc. Presented in this way, since the filmmakers like the effects that are achieved with them. This could be the audiovisual version of the old diorama, a medium that does not lose its effectiveness despite the years.
Source: https: //es.wikipedia.org
In this section you will find everything you need to develop your modeling projects Paintings, kits, brushes, primers, everything to paint your fantasy figures, your slott cars, your letters, models, etc .....