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Drawing | Illustration

In this section you will find all the material to make your drawing as pad, Chinese inks, pencil cases, crayons, felt-tip pens etc ...

You will also find everything you need to do your artwork such as inks, pens, sprayers, etc ...


Drawing means both the art that teaches to draw, as the delineation, figure or image executed in light and dark; Takes its name according to the material with which it is made. It is a form of graphic expression that pictures images on a flat space, considered part of the painting and one of the modalities of the visual arts. Drawing is regarded as the universal graphic language and has been used by humanity to convey ideas, projects and, in a broader sense, its ideas, customs and culture.
History of drawing

The drawing serves as a tool for the representation of real objects or ideas that, sometimes, it is not possible to express faithfully with words. The earliest known drawings go back to prehistory; The cave paintings of the Altamira cave are some of the earliest examples, where the human being captured on the roofs and walls of the caves what he considered important to transmit or express, normally activities related to his way of life and his environment.

From the earliest civilizations there remain few examples of drawings, usually because of the fragility of the material in which they were executed (they have been found in ostraca and unfinished wall paintings), or because they were a means to elaborate later paintings, covered with layers of color. The cultures of Ancient China, Mesopotamia, Indus Valley or Ancient Egypt left clear signs of this, devising the first canons of proportions, as also happened in Ancient Greece and Rome.
In the Middle Ages the drawing, generally colored, was used profusely to represent religious themes on parchments as an explanation or allegory of written histories, thus depriving the symbolic of the realist, even the proportions and canons of the time. The Islamic culture also contributed with precious drawings that used to accompany texts of anatomy, astronomy or astrology.

It is in the Renaissance when the drawing hatches, achieving sublime achievements. For the first time, the method of reflecting reality with the greatest fidelity possible, according to impeccable mathematical and geometric rules, is studied: with Filippo Brunelleschi, the conic perspective emerges. Drawing from the hands of the great Renaissance artists takes on autonomy, acquiring their own value in self-portraits, architectural plans and various realistic subjects - such as those of Leonardo da Vinci -, as well as serve as an essential preliminary study of other arts, such as painting, sculpture Or architecture.


Drawing is the universal language, since without words it is possible to convey ideas in a graphic way that are understandable to all. There are drawings that are recognized within a culture, called symbols. Other examples are those belonging to the signage, an activity that is responsible for communicating behavior parameters in a given location through the graphic language.

Paul Valery said that the three great human creations are drawing, poetry and mathematics.

Drawing and painting
Drawing and painting does not mean the same thing. By its physical nature, drawing is a subset of the artistic manifestations known as painting, but it is not part of painting as a technique of representation. Drawing is the art of graphing objects on a flat surface; Is the basis of all plastic creation and is a conventional means of expressing the shape of an object by means of lines or strokes. In painting, the structure of the planes is achieved by colored masses.

The techniques of painting and drawing can be confused, because the tools are sometimes the same. However the technique is different: painting involves the application of pigments, usually by a brush, which are scattered on a canvas, and drawing is the delineation on a surface, usually paper. In other words, the act of painting uses the stain as a communicative resource while the drawing uses the line.

The term draw also suggests a different process from painting. Drawing is generally exploratory, with primary emphasis on observation, problem solving, and composition. In contrast, traditional painting is generally the execution or finishing of the drawing by the insertion of pigments.

Classification of the drawing

According to its conception

According to its object, the drawing can be classified in:

Design drawing
Definition drawing
Manufacturing drawing
Industrial drawing
These precisely determine the chronological order to represent and transmit through sketches, diagrams or diagrams the idea or project that wants to develop and execute its inventor or designer: shaping in its order the general idea, its space form and dimension, and finally its Process and manufacturing technique.

According to its objective

Artistic drawing

It is the representation of an object by means of lines that limit its shapes and contours. It is an abstraction of our mind that allows us to fix the appearance of form, since the eye only perceives colored masses of different intensity. Artistic drawings are usually representations of objects or scenes where the artist sees, remembers or imagines. These can be realistic: an example is portraits or architectural drawings. Drawing can also go so far as to lose some approximation to reality (such as caricatures), relatively far from reality (cartoons and comics), to the surreal and abstract.
Aim: Quick drawing that is used to capture and recall the characteristics of what is to be drawn later. It is especially useful when drawing exteriors or moving figures.
Sketch: proof of the drawing on a separate paper. It helps to decide the framing, the composition, what elements are included.
Embedding: general lines that are drawn in the definitive paper (they are covered or erased later), serve as the basis of the drawing.
Line: drawing of the contours. First draw the most general and then the detail.
Valorization: to achieve more realism and volume, a shading is done. A color transition is made from the lighter areas to the darker areas. Light areas can be lightened by erasing or using a white or similar colored pencil, while dark areas are achieved by saturating the material.
Color: a drawing can carry color, especially if it is intended to be an illustration (drawing accompanying a text in books, posters, etc.), applied by various techniques: watercolor, ink, colored pencil, computer. The color can be flat (homogeneous) or textured (irregular appearance that can be achieved with the material, paper, technique, ...).
Corrections: Errors can be corrected in different ways, erasing, covering an area of ​​the drawing with paint or a piece of paper and drawing on it, or performing a scan of the drawing and modifying it in a program of photo retouching with which they can be removed , Add or highlight things, improve contrasts and colors.
Proportion: gives the object represented the necessary harmony by correctly relating all the elements that make it up. A useful and practical advice at the time of the drawing frame is to place it in front of a mirror, in this way it is discovered if the work is well proportioned and if it keeps the corresponding symmetry; This is very useful especially with the drawings of the face and in portraits. Other ways to evaluate if the drawing is correct are: place it upside down, look it up against the back of the sheet or place the sheet a little lower to change the perspective when looking at it.
A freehand drawing mode is that done on the fly, without further corrections, by travelers, explorers, scientists. These types of drawings are known as field notebooks and examples include Wilhelm Filchner and Julio Caro Baroja.

Geometric drawing

It is one that is represented by means of flat graphs. It constitutes a system of structured teaching to guarantee both the student of the first years of the Technical Schools and those of the Faculties of Architecture and Engineering - schoolmasters or mercantile experts - a fast handling and later mastery of the hand in the plane. This arises from his figures and drawings, the enumeration and designation of the tools and the explanation of the use of what is strictly necessary; The characteristics of the technical calligraphy, their groups to perform the appropriate practice and the advice to carry out the exercises. Also included are the main geometric figures and the logical way of constructing them is detailed, approach fruit of a meticulous task and a methodology acquired day by day

Technical drawing

Technical drawing is the standard technical universal graphic language. Skills for this kind of drawing are learned because they must meet certain standards. It is subdivided in technical drawing specialized, according to the need or application the most used or diffused in the technical and professional environment. Each one is characterized by using its own specific symbology and usually legally normalized.

The planes representing a simple mechanism or a machine formed by a set of pieces are called assembly planes, and those representing a single element, part planes. Those that represent a set of pieces with the graphic indications for their placement and assembly, are called planes.

Geodetic drawing

In a two-dimensional map of the world, as if the earth were flat, the meridians (vertical concentric circles) must be traced in the form of vertical straight lines. In some maps, the parallels (horizontal parallel circles) are drawn as parallel horizontal lines, and the meridians are curves that start from the poles.
Instruments and materials

More than a graphic technique based on the use of the line, drawing is the expression of an image that is done manually, that is, the hand is used to do it. The instruments that can be used are many, as well as the surface where it can be done. The most used are paper as a stand and the pen as the instrument, but computers are currently used using the keyboard, mouse, or a pen, most common on Tablet PC.


The instruments to draw are graphite pencils, such as drawing pencils (6b), (2b) and (Hb), the most important in basic drawing, fountain pen, charcoal, ruler, compass or squares, among others.

Paints and pigments

The medium refers to what type of ink, pigment or color is to be used on the surface to be drawn. The tool used can be dry as graphite, pastels, conté, or wet as markers, pen or ink. Aqueous pencils can be used dry, but when wet they take on a different shade. Although unusual, sometimes artists work with an invisible ink class.

Physical supports

The physical support can be any, since the antiquity has been changing from one format to another. The most used are those based on paper or cardboard, although the variety becomes so huge that it is difficult to specify. Depending on whether the drawing is intended, polypropylene may be used from the canvas for a representative work for decorative purposes to produce drawings on posters for advertising purposes.


Illustration of books

The illustration of manuscript books was a highly developed craft in ancient times, and the tradition of illuminating manuscripts flourished in the West until the printing was invented. Similar practices existed in other parts of the world, such as Persian miniatures. The illustration of books as we know it today originates in the fifteenth century from illustrations by wood carving that were quickly included in the first printed books, and later books printed in block.1 Other techniques such as engraving, Etching, lithography and various color printing methods to expand the possibilities and were used by masters such as Daumier, Doré or Gavarni.


The illustration of books as it is known at the beginning of the 21st century evolved from the primitive prints by means of European woodcuts. At the beginning of the fifteenth century, the playing decks began to be printed by woodcut printing with blocks of wood, which was the first use of the prints in a definite order and sequence. "The first impressions in European block with a function of communication were the cards of saints."

As printing became popular and books became more common, printers began to use pieces of carved wood to illustrate them. In this way, "the production centers of wood carvings for printing cards and religious cards became centers of illustrated books. Often the printers of the first books reused several times and had stamps of figures, or of the Attributes of the saints, who organized different forms in a larger image to obtain variations in the final impression.3 For several decades luxury books were often printed with blanks to illuminate them by antique use.

Unlike the other techniques used later, wood carving uses relief printing in a way analogous to the use of metal types, so it is possible to combine and print pages where there is text and illustrations. However the results of this technique are somewhat rudimentary or costly if a famous wood carver was used, and could only show illustrations in great detail if large pages were used. It was not suitable for the level of detail needed in the maps, and the Bolognese edition of Ptolemy's Cosmographia was the first book to have printed maps and to be illustrated by engravings (by Taddeo Crivelli) instead of wood carvings. However, almost no illustrations were used by engraving until 1490, and in contrast between 1480 and 1540 there was a style of expensive and luxurious books decorated by metalcut, mostly religious and produced in Paris. In the middle of the sixteenth century, the technique of carving in wood was gradually replaced by engraving with engraving techniques of etching and etching which were dominant from 1560-90, first in Antwerp, then in Germany, Switzerland and Italy, the printing centers more important. Continuing in this way until the end of the 19th century. They required the illustrations to be printed separately, using a different printing press, thus encouraging the use of full-page illustrations, which became the norm.

Engraving and etching provided a better definition and allowed for finer detail in the illustrations, so from the late fifteenth century they became the preferred techniques, often using techniques on the same plate. So now a large number of books had illustrations, initially only a few pages, but gradually the number of illustrations in each book was increasing, with a tendency to prefer etching over the engraving. A number of private books such as scientific and technical works, children's books, and atlases were now profusely illustrated, and from the mid-eighteenth century many of the new novel forms included some illustrations.

Luxurious books on geography and natural history, and some books for children, had printed illustrations that were hand-colored, but in Europe none of the experimental techniques for color printing were widely used before the middle of the nineteenth century, when Several different techniques began to succeed. In East Asia color printing using several different wooden blocks was increasingly used; The technique developed in Japan is called nishiki-e, and was used both in books and in ukiyo-e prints.

Lithography (invented by Alois Senefelder in 1819) allowed a greater variety of texts and precision. This is because the artist can now draw directly on the plate that will be used to print.

During the nineteenth and twentieth centuries new techniques were developed that revolutionized book illustrations. At the beginning of the 19th century, the photo-engraving process allowed reproducing photographs in the books. In this process, a light sensitive gelatin is used to transfer the image to a metal plate, which is then treated with a chemical. Another process, chromolithography, which was developed in France in the mid-nineteenth century, allowed for color printing. The process was extremely laborious and expensive since the artist had to prepare a different plate for each color to be used. At the end of the 20th century, the process called offset lithography, which reduced and reduced the time required for color printing. The process uses a chemical process to transfer a photographic negative to a rubber before printing.

Several artistic movements of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries were interested in enriching the design and illustration of books. For example, Aubrey Beardsley, a propeller of Art Nouveau and Aestheticism, had great influence on book illustrations. Beardsley specialized in erotica and some of his best drawings correspond to illustrations for the first English edition of Salome's Oscar Wilde (1894).


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